A data warehouse is a subject oriented, nonvolatile, integrated, time variant collection of data to support management’s decisions
- Inmon, W. H. (2005). Building the Data Warehouse. Indianapolis, Ind.: Wiley.
There are different ways to handle the validation of relationships from source systems depending on how the data is delivered, (full-extract or CDC), and the way a delete is delivered by the source system, such as a soft delete or hard delete.
First, let us explain the different kinds of deletes in source systems:
Secondly, let’s explore how we find the data in the staging area:
To keep the following explanation as simple as possible, our assumption is that we want to mark relationships as deleted as soon as we get the delete information, even if there is no audit trail from the source system (data aging is another topic).
Data Vault is capable of decoupling all the necessary business-driven changes, extensions and customizations to the platform while maintaining the ability to become the cornerstone of an integrated architecture. The decoupling is a part of our Data Vault Boot Camp and is summarized in Figure 1.
Scalefree can provide knowledge and implementation assistance in both Data Vault as well as Salesforce therefore creating the optimal partner for your Salesforce integration project.
Thus, the immediate access to the data and certainty on its quality can enhance business performance immensely. But the sad truth is that we see bad data in operational systems due to human-caused errors such as typos, ignoring standards and duplicates, in addition to lack of input-validators in operating systems such as must-fields not being declared as well as references to other entities (primary-foreign-key constraints) not being defined.
Many people already know the three layer architecture of data warehouses which is used in Data Vault 2.0. The first layer represents the staging area which holds the raw data from the source systems. The enterprise data warehouse layer, which in this case contains a Data Vault 2.0 model and the third layer with the Information Marts, which deliver the information in various structures (Star Schemas, Snowflake Schemas etc.).
Figure 1. Data Vault 2.0 Architecture
The scalability and flexibility of Data Vault 2.0 offers a whole variety of use cases that can be realized, e.g. to optimize as well as automate operational processes, predict the future, push data back to operational systems as a new input or trigger events outside the data warehouse, to name a few. Read More
This article describes features embodied in the Data Vault 2.0 model: the foundation of hub, link, and satellite entities can adjust to changes in the source data easily, thus reducing the cost of reengineering the enterprise data warehouse.
In general, we have defined the following types of satellite splits:
Additionally, we have defined two more types of splits as mentioned below:
A satellite split by source system is strongly recommended to prevent two issues when loading the data into the enterprise data warehouse: First, if two different source systems with different relational structures should be loaded into the same satellite entity, a transformation of the structure might be required. However, structural transformation requires business logic sooner or later and that should be deferred to the information delivery stage to support fully-auditable environments as well as the application of multiple business perspectives. Read More
Throughout this article, we will continue presenting our suggestions for naming conventions in a data warehouse solution, as well as sharing examples for naming standards, which both our team and our customers utilize internally.
For layer schema names, we prefer using prefixes.
As discussed in the previous blog post, this convention boosts visibility in data exploration within the Enterprise Data Warehouse for developers and business users by grouping schemas of the same data warehouse layer together.
The following is a list of common Enterprise Data Warehouse layers and our associated recommendations regarding naming conventions: Read More
We previously explored how the EDW can help to improve data quality by implementing data cleansing rules.
This can be applied by write-back operations that affect the source systems directly. Though this was only one example of how to add more value to the EDW.
The scalability and flexibility of Data Vault 2.0 offers a whole variety of use cases that can be realized, e.g. to optimize and automate operational processes, predict the future, push data back to operational systems as a new input or trigger events outside the data warehouse, to name a few.
As to capture the descriptive data, which in this case is the describing factor of the business keys, satellite entities are used in Data Vault. As both business keys and relationships between business keys can be described by user data, satellites may be attached to hub as well as link entities as such:
Consider this situation in which a sample data set, involving an insurance company, concerning customers signing car and home insurance policies as well as filing claims, each respectively. Though before moving forward with the example, it is important to note that there are relationships between the involved business keys, that of the customer number, the policy identifiers, and the claims.
These relationships are captured by Data Vault link entities and just like hubs, they contain a distinct list of records, as such, they contain no duplicates in terms of stored data. Thus, both will form the skeleton of Data Vault and later be described by descriptive user data stored in satellites.
Both systems should be technically integrated, which means if a new customer signs up for a home insurance policy, the customer’s data should be synchronized into the car insurance policy system as well and kept in sync at all times. Thus, when the customer relocates, the new address is updated within both systems.
Though in reality, it often doesn’t go quite as one would expect, as, first of all, both systems are usually not well integrated or simply not integrated at all. Adding to the complexity, in some worst-case scenarios, data is manually copied from one system to the next and updates are not applied to all datasets in a consistent fashion but only to some, leading to inconsistent, contradicting source datasets. The same situation applies often to data sets after mergers and acquisitions are made within an organization.
In contrast to the tables used by relational databases, MongoDB uses a JSON-based document data model. Thus, documents are a more natural way to represent data as a single structure with related data embedded as sub-documents and arrays collapses what is otherwise separated into parent-child tables linked by foreign keys in a relational database. You can model data in any way that your application demands – from rich, hierarchical documents through to flat, table-like structures, simple key-value pairs, text, geospatial data, and the nodes as well as edges used in graph processing.
Another challenge is the data itself, regardless of its structure.
In many, if not most, cases, the source data doesn’t meet the information requirements of the user regarding its content. In many cases, the data needs cleansing and transformation before it can be presented to the user.
Instead of just loading the data into a MongoDB collection and wrangling it until it fits the needs of the end user, the Data Vault 2.0 architecture proposes an approach that allows data as well as business rules, which are used for data cleansing in addition to transformation, to be re-used by many users. To achieve this, it is made up of a multi-layered architecture that contains the following layers:
Typical challenges include issues such as the integration of mainframe data with real-time IoT messages and hierarchical documents.
One of such issues being that enterprise data is not clean and might have contradicting characteristics as well as interpretations. This poses a challenge for many processes such as when integrating customers from multiple source systems.
Though, data cleansing could be considered as a solution to this problem. However, what if different data cleansing rules should be applied to the incoming data set? For example, because the basic assumption for “a single version of the truth” doesn’t exist in most enterprises. While one department might have a clear understanding of how the incoming data should be cleansed, another department, or an external party, might have another understanding.